Friday, 29 July 2011

Critical legal study

critical legal study

Critical legal study, (legal research method)

This post will cover the following:

What is the meaning of critical study?

The aim or purpose of using this method?

The required tools?

How to criticise?

Critical study definition:

“That kind of study or method that based on careful analytical study, method or evaluation that aims to provide the view of the researcher regarding a certain view or point”

According to this simple definition we can say that a critical study is part of the analysis study or a comparative study, as the researcher shall based on the outcomes of his/her analytical or/and comparative in order to criticise a view or specific point seeking after providing an evaluation or even a solution to a legal problem

The aims of using a critical study:

1.      To provide the view of the researcher

2.      To declare the importance of a specific point

3.      To compare between two or more views, laws or any sources that the study based on

4.      To set an evaluation regarding the subject that the researcher chose, used or specified

5.      To create an argument that based on a comparative or analytical study

6.      To present the researcher view as a realistic view in respect of the data used in his/her study, whether by agreeing or disagreeing with the main view that the study based on, and by giving a reasonable causes to that view

7.      To highlight the main issues that the study shall deal with

8.      To provide a solutions to the argument that the researcher made

And many other aims or purposes

The required tools to set a critical study:

1.      A certain topic

2.      Enough data

3.      An argument

4.      An analysis or comparative study

5.      A well knowledge in that topic

6.      A good evaluation that you can base on to provide your view

7.      A well structure that your study should based on

8.      A realistic causes and reasonable outcomes

How to criticise?

1.      You need to specified your topic or subject

2.      You need to collect enough data

3.      You need to analyse that data, and in some cases you need to make a comparative

4.      You need to highlight your views, or your evaluations if you have more than one view, law or resource

5.      You should causes your views

6.      You have to input that views under the argument you made in your study

7.      Finally you can place your outcomes basing on that study

It should be noted that this post cover and show the writer view regarding what is a critical legal study and how it may be made, without mentioning any complicated views that deal and define such kind of methodology, in which it aims to simplify the meaning and using this useful and important method

I hope that you find this post useful and helpful, if you have a question or if you have an addition please feel free to place your comment or question under this post

Mohammad Al-Thunibat

M & T

Friday, 22 July 2011

Legal Studies, Comparative Study

comparative study
Comparative study

The importance of legal comparison studies
Why you need to use a comparative study or a comparative method in your research or assay?
How to structure a comparative study?

This post aims to answer one of the common questions we received recently regarding how I can structure a comparative study and why it considers important.

As we mentioned in previous post (click hereto read that post) , a comparative study deems as a method or tool that the researcher or student use to show the difference and provide his/her recommendation (whether by agreeing or modifying or adding to the conclusion of that comparative), which placed under the purpose of using the comparative study

Although, it should be minded that this post aims to simplify the use of comparative studies regarding legal researches or assays. Therefore, we will highlight the main points and tools that you should understand and adopt in order to be able to know how to use comparative method. So let’s start

The importance of comparative study:

1.      To show the connection and difference. As the comparative method set usually between two or more topics, methods, schools, laws, opinions...etc, it aims to show the connection and differences between the comparison subject

2.      To highlight the main concepts, titles, topics and principles that the comparative study will base on. Therefore, the reader will gain an easily understandable research that cover the main issues that aim to deal with the comparative study

3.      To set a globalising connection. It is known that most of the comparative law (which is part of the comparative study), aims to set a global connection between the laws regarding the topic that the comparative base on, in which this study must show the main connection and differences between the selector laws, which the researcher must provide a platform for his/her study

4.      To try to harmonise between the selected topics and the selector resources that the comparative shall base on. Whereas, the comparative study must set in connection with specific related topics in order to reach to a realistic outcomes

5.      To provide a useable and adoptable view that can demonstrate the outcome and recommendation of your comparison

6.      To provide a deep knowledge regarding the subject that the comparative study based on

 How to structure a comparative study?

1.      First of all, you need to specify your topic

2.      Then highlight the related resources (books, opinions, laws...etc)

3.      Then set a number of titles basing on the data you have

4.      Determine exactly why you want to do a comparative study, in order to set a draft outcomes (the purpose will lead to outcome)

5.      Specify the connections and differences

6.      Try to evaluate the size of the comparative

7.      Make sure to provide your view while comparing

8.      Set the outcomes in numbers (list) and place your recommendations accordingly

This simply how you can structure and benefit from using a comparative method or study

An example determine the process of a comparative study

Let’s say that I want to compare between two laws or views:

1. First of all, I will specify the related Articles or views, (for example Article 1 of the law X, with Article 2 of the law Y. Or view 1 with view 2)

2. Then I will read them carefully and analyse them in accordance to their content

3. According to the analysis I made, I will set my draft structure that the comparative shall base on between the X and Y laws, (the main points, why we compare, where is the difference, what the reader can expect from the comparative...etc)

4. Also, according to the analysis, I’ll identify the main titles or topics of my study (X1, X2... Y1, Y2)

5. After doing so, I’ll start my comparative by writing a brief introduction explains the cause, aim, purpose, method... etc of the comparative study

6. Then I’ll start working on the content of the comparative (by saying Article 1 of the X law said ... while Article 2 of the Y law said. Or view 1 said ... while view 2 said ... etc)

7. During the previous process, I’ll be able to highlight the differences and conflicts between the content of the selected laws or views, which I’ll be able to use them later in the conclusion

8. Finally, I’m ready to write the conclusion basing on the study titles and contents, and more importantly basing on the highlighted points that I made during my study. In which I can use in my findings and recommendations at the end of the comparative study

Mohammad Al-Thunibat

M & T

Wednesday, 20 July 2011

Online Banking, what is it? its features, and how to open online account?

online banking
Online Banking, E-banking

This post aims to cover:

What is online banking?

What are the benefits of online banking?

E-banking, Is it secure?

What do I need to open an online account? How to open an online account?

What is an online banking?

That kind of services that provided by regular banks online (via the internet) in which allows its customers to manage and control their accounts through the internet, in addition to other features and by providing a high security service

What are the benefits of online banking?

1.      Move money (transactions); this feature allow the customer to make a financial transactions such as transfer money from account to another, paying bills or send money to others which deem as transfer money between different accounts

2.      Tracking your account; this feature provide to the customer the opportunity to track his/her account and gain proof of what transactions he/she made (statements)

3.      Security; each bank must provide to its customers a kind of security that protect him/her from any fraud or hacking, as some of the banks may give to the customer a security software in which aims to protect the login data that the customer inters to access to his/her account. Although, there are other services that banks may provide such as card-reader or security promise

4.      Managing your account; some banks provide services that allows the customer to control his/her direct debits and give him/her the right to update their details (such as e-mails or address ... etc)

5.      Help and support; online banking provide to its user a full support and help service 24 hours a day via a specified help service centre that provided by the bank

6.      Other services; such as loans, savings, credit cards and many others

E-banking, Is it secure?

Well, the answer is yes, as most of the banks provide a high technical and legal services and terms that aim to protect the customer from any unwanted or hacking acts, by providing a high technical services and software to do so. But you need to update your browser frequently as hackers or fraudsters find un-updated browsers easy to exploit security gaps in older browsers

What do I need to open an online account? How to open an online account?

Well, most of the banks require two main requests when a customer want to open an online account, these requirements are: (a regular account number and the sort code). However, others may add other requirements such as a credit card number. Herein, it is better to read the terms of use to know what exactly you are required to provide to open an online account

Regarding to how you can open an online account, you should understand and apply the following:

1.      Prepare the required papers or conditions, as mentioned above

2.      Visit the online address of your bank

3.      Browse its terms and conditions

4.      Navigate to reach to sign up feature, then click on that icon

5.      Fill the form, and make sure that you have correctly input your data and details as they must be genuine

6.      Walk through the guidance that provided by the banks’ site

7.      Finally wait to receive a confirmation e-mail from your bank

It should be noted that most of the banks do not contact with their customers via e-mails, so if you received an e-mail from a bank then think twice before acting and it is recommended not to respond to such e-mails, as the common way to contact with you is via post or regular notification

 At the end we hope that you find this post helpful and useful. For more details or questions please feel free to place your request under this post

Mohammad Al-Thunibat

M & T

Saturday, 16 July 2011

PayPal Fraud ( Online Fraud )


PayPal fraud, ( Online fraud )

One of the ways that commonly committed online- especially in online auctions (eBay auctions)- is PayPal fraud. In which this post will try to cover what and how this kind of fraud is committed by fraudsters and how you can avoid PayPal frauds

What is PayPal?

PayPal is one of e-commerce business types that allow its customer to transfer money and do payments through the internet. This process governed by the customer account in which it can be funded with electronic money from the customer bank account or credit card. For more details visit PayPal site

What is PayPal fraud?

Ø  One of the common types that fraudsters adopt nowadays is by buying an item from an online auction (eBay auction), which followed by paying through PayPal, then they ask the seller to arrange an appointment to collect the good or product; after this process fraudsters make a claim (challenging the selling process) to PayPal that they did not receive the good or product from the seller. In which PayPal is entitled in such case to refund the buyer (fraudster) if the seller did not has a shipment tracking number (in which in this case he/she did not), however, it should be noted that PayPal does not accept video evidence or signed documents as an evidence except a shipment tracking number as its policy states. In result, the fraudster will end with an item without paying anything in return
Ø  Other common fraud, is that when some fraudsters (especially from Nigeria) send to the seller an email from eBay or from PayPal (scam email) telling him/her that this person (fraudster) has bought the item or has paid via PayPal, in which the seller, therefore, must ship the item to that buyer (fraudster). In this case, if the seller was not careful he/she will do what that email says and end without any return for his/her item

How to avoid PayPal fraud?

1.      As a seller you must check the policy of PayPal before start using it, (read it and understand it)
2.      Specified exactly how the buyer will get the item, whether by shipping it or he must collect it, as this tool will help you to avoid any misunderstanding or fraud
3.      Do not give away the item without taking a confirmation from the buyer and send it to PayPal, in case the buyer collected the item
4.      It is recommended to handle the shipment rather than asking buyers to collect what they bought, in order to gain an effective evidence which is the shipping tracking number
5.      Do not act directly if you received an email before checking, (make sure that the sender and the content are genuine by accessing your eBay account or PayPal account and look for the selling order or payment)
6.      Do not replay to people you know for sure that they are fraudsters
7.      Inform PayPal directly or eBay about any suspicious person
8.      Inform your local authorities about any suspicious person or activity
9.      If you have been a victim of such kind of fraud then you must inform your local authorities about the fraud directly
Finally I hope that this post can be useful and helpful, please leave your comment or question if you have any
Mohammad Al-Thunibat
M & T

Wednesday, 6 July 2011

How to start an online business

How to start an online business

Lately, I received a question regarding how to start a business online? Well, in order to set a legitimate online business you are required to adopt and apply some principles and rules that we talk about in previous posts. But what this post will cover:

Ø  How to start a business?

Ø  How to start up a legal business online?

Ø  How to start up a free online business?

Ø  How to set a profitable business online?

How to start a business

There are three main steps that you must consider to set a business, especially online business, these steps are:

1.      Foundation step: in this step you should declare and specify the type of your business, its costs, its place (whether online or offline), its size, the targeted customers...etc

2.      Operation step: in this step you will start dealing with the selling process, (or any other type that your business set for), which deem as the activation process between you and your customers

3.      Finalizing step: in this step you should specify and declare the legal, commercial and technical rules that organise and cover the purpose of your business. Such as a policy, term of use...etc (this step is a following step to the foundation step)

How to start up a legal business online

In order to start up a legal business you are required to adopt at least these concepts and principles: it should be noted that some of them illustrated in previous posts

1.      Information provided and description (avoid ignorance)

2.      Consumer protection

3.      Online protection (privacy and data protection)

4.      Trade mark

5.      Copyright

6.      Trust (online trust)

7.      A business must has a legit purpose

8.      Guidance (inform and guide your customers to read and review your terms of use and your policy)

9.      Delivery, shipping, payment... rules (these rules must be clearly presented by you)

10.  Restrictions and limitation

How to start up a free online business?

There are many ways to start up an online business for free, such as:

1.      Through emails

2.      Through social networking (such as facebook, twitter...etc)

3.      Through a free blog (BlogSpot, wordpress...etc)

4.      Through a commercial site (which give you an online page to sell through)

How to set a profitable business online?

In order to maintain a profitable business it’s recommended to consider and adopt the following:

1.      Choose a good niche

2.      Choose a unique product or service

3.      Avoid high competitor fields (at least at the beginning of your business)

4.      Work to develop your marketing methods, and use a legit ones

5.      Simplify the processes of selling

6.      Provide a well description

7.      Gain and work on granting online trust

8.      Provide a fair protection to your customers

9.      Provide and ask for feedback and reviews

10.  Use more than one method of payment

11.  Specify clearly your rules

12.  Provide a free gifts or info-products

13.  Sell a low cost items

These tips and advises may help you to spot the right type and the appropriate method to your business, but the hard work depend on you

I hope that we provide a useful post that can help you to understand and highlight the main points to start up your online business. Please feel free to leave your question or comment. And please let us know what is the most effective obstacle that you face regarding your business?

Mohammad Al-Thunibat

M & T